In modern medicine, bone and dental loss and defects are common and widespread morbidities, for which regenerative therapy has shown great promise. Mesenchymal stem cells, obtained from various sources and playing an essential role in organ development and postnatal repair, have exhibited enormous potential for regenerating bone and dental tissue. Currently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-based bone and dental regeneration mainly includes two strategies: the rescue or mobilization of endogenous MSCs and the application of exogenous MSCs in cytotherapy or tissue engineering. Nevertheless, the efficacy of MSCbased regeneration is not always fulfilled, especially in diseased microenvironments. Specifically, the diseased microenvironment not only impairs the regenerative potential of resident MSCs but also controls the therapeutic efficacy of exogenous MSCs, both as donors and recipients. Accordingly, approaches targeting a diseased microenvironment have been established, including improving the diseased niche to restore endogenous MSCs, enhancing MSC resistance to a diseased microenvironment and renormalizing the microenvironment to guarantee MSC-mediated therapies. Moreover, the application of extracellular vesicles (EVs) as cell-free therapy has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy. In this review, we summarize current knowledge regarding the tactics of MSC-based bone and dental regeneration and the decisive role of the microenvironment, emphasizing the therapeutic potential of microenvironment-targeting strategies in bone and dental regenerative medicine.

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