Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). In attempt to identify an appropriate treatment for improving the neurological symptoms and remyelination process, autologous and allogenic transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been introduced as an effective therapeutic strategy in MS.

MSCs are a heterogeneous subset of pluripotent non-hematopoietic stromal cells that are isolated from bone marrow, adipose tissue, placenta and other sources. MSCs have considerable therapeutic effects due to their ability in differentiation, migration, immune-modulation and neuroregeneration.

To date, numerous experimental and clinical studies demonstrated that MSCs therapy improves the CNS repair and modulates functional neurological symptoms.

Here, is provided an overview of the current knowledge about the clinical applications of MSCs in MS. Furthermore, the major challenges and risks of MSCs therapy in MS patients have been elucidated.

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