The primary goal of the present study was to develop the nano-drug consisting of doxorubicin and exosome derived from mesenchymal stem cells, and to explore its effect on osteosarcoma in vitro.
The exosomes were isolated from bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) by an Exosome Isolation Kit. The exosome-loaded doxorubicin (Exo-Dox) was prepared by mixing exosome with Dox-HCl, desalinizing with triethylamine and then dialyzing against PBS overnight. The nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to characterize of the exosome and Exo-Dox. The cytotoxicity of Exo-Dox was determined by CCK-8 assay. Further, the cellular uptake of different drugs was analyzed using inverted fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry.
The typical exosome structures can be observed by TEM. After loading with doxorubicin, its size is larger than free exosome. Compared with the free Dox, the prepared Exo-Dox showed enhanced cellular uptake efficiency and anti-tumor effect in osteosarcoma MG63 cell line but low cytotoxicity in myocardial H9C2 cell line.
The prepared Exo-Dox could be used as an excellent chemotherapeutic drug for treatment of osteosarcoma in vitro. Considering the tumor-homing feature of BM-MSCs, the Exo-Dox may be a good candidate for targeted osteosarcoma treatment in future study.