Using organoid technology, adult epithelial stem cells can be expanded in vitro to generate self organizing 3D epithelial structures that closely recapitulate the architecture and cellular composition of the tissue of origin.

Because of their strict dependence on Wnt ligands for survival and growth, intestinal organoids have become the tool of choice for in vitro studies aimed at revealing mechanistic aspects of Wnt signaling.

Adult stem cell- and patientderived intestinal organoids can serve as a platform for investigating mutation-induced disease mechanisms. Insights into how specific mutations alter Wnt activity are becoming a key determinant for tailored therapeutic approaches.

Given the rapid expansion of the organoid field and its applications, there is an increasing need for a standardized method to interpret organoid genotype–phenotype relationships.

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