Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with thrombotic complications in adults, but the incidence of COVID-19-related thrombosis in children and adolescents is unclear. Most children with acute COVID-19 have mild disease, but coagulopathy has been associated with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a postinfectious complication.
It was conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study to determine the incidence of thrombosis in children hospitalized with COVID-19 or MIS-C and evaluate associated risk factors. Were classified patients into 1 of 3 groups for analysis: COVID-19, MIS-C, or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2.
Among a total of 853 admissions (COVID-19, n = 426; MIS-C, n = 138; and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2, n = 289) in 814 patients, there were 20 patients with thrombotic events (TEs; including 1 stroke). Patients with MIS-C had the highest incidence (9 [6.5%] of 138) vs COVID-19 (9 [2.1%] of 426) or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 (2 [0.7%] of 289). In patients with COVID-19 or MIS-C, a majority of TEs (89%) occurred in patients age ≥12 years. Patients age ≥12 years with MIS-C had the highest rate of thrombosis at 19% (9 of 48).
Notably, 71% of TEs that were not present on admission occurred despite thromboprophylaxis. Multivariable analysis identified the following as significantly associated with thrombosis: age ≥12 years, cancer, presence of a central venous catheter, and MIS-C. In patients with COVID-19 or MIS-C, hospital mortality was 2.3% (13 of 564), but it was 28% (5 of 18) in patients with TEs.
These findings may help inform pediatric thromboprophylaxis strategies.