More than 180 million Americans, including more than 80 percent of people over age 65, are fully vaccinated against the SARS-CoV-2 virus responsible for COVID-19. There’s no question that full vaccination is the best way to protect yourself against this devastating virus and reduce your chances of developing severe or long-lasting illness if you do get sick. But, to stay ahead of this terrible virus, important questions do remain. A big one right now is: How soon will booster shots be needed and for whom?
The answers to this question will continue to evolve as more high-quality data become available. But here’s what we know right now for the Pfizer-BioNTech booster. Late last week, Dr. Rochelle Walensky, the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), recommended that:
- Those 65 years and older and residents in long-term care settings should receive a booster shot at least 6 months after being fully vaccinated with the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine,
- People aged 50–64 years with underlying medical conditions should receive a booster shot at least 6 months after being fully vaccinated with the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine,
- Individuals aged 18–49 years with underlying medical conditions may receive a booster shot at least 6 months after getting fully vaccinated with their Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, based on their individual benefits and risks.
- Frontline workers who received the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine may receive a booster. This group includes anyone age 18 through 64 whose frequent institutional or occupational exposure to SARS-CoV-2 puts them at high risk of COVID-19. 
Taken together, these CDC recommendations are in line with those issued two days earlier by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) .
Some of the most-compelling data that was under review came from an Israeli study, published recently in the New England Journal of Medicine, that explored the benefit of booster shots for older people . Israel, with a population of around 9 million, has a national health system and one of the world’s highest COVID-19 vaccination rates. That country’s vaccination campaign, based solely on Pfizer-BioNTech, was organized early in 2021, and so its experience is about three months ahead of ours here in the U.S. These features, plus some of the world’s largest integrated health record databases, have made Israel an important source of early data on how the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccine can be expected to work in the real world over time.
Earlier this year, Israeli public health officials noted evidence for an increased number of breakthrough infections, some of which were severe. So, at the end of July 2021, Israel approved the administration of third doses, or “boosters,” of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine for people ages 60 and up who had received their second dose at least five months before.
To find out how well these booster shots worked to bolster immune protection against COVID-19, researchers looked to more than 1.1 million fully vaccinated people who were at least 60 years old. They compared the rate of confirmed COVID-19 infection and severe illness from the end of July to the end of August among people who’d received a booster at least 12 days earlier with those who hadn’t gotten boosters.
Nearly 13,500 older individuals who’d been fully vaccinated before March 2021, got a breakthrough infection during the two months of study. Importantly, the rate of confirmed infection in the group that got boosters was 10 times lower on average than in the group that didn’t get boosters. The data on severe illness looked even better. Of course, there could be other factors at play that weren’t accounted for in the study, but the findings certainly suggest that a third Pfizer shot is safe and effective for older people.
Though the Israeli studies on booster shots are a little ahead of the international pack, we are starting to see results from the research underway in the U.S. Last week, for example, Johnson & Johnson announced new data in support of boosters to improve and extend immune protection in those who received its single-dose COVID-19 vaccine . For people who received the Moderna mRNA vaccine, the company has already submitted its data to the FDA for booster authorization. A decision is expected soon.
As the critical evidence on boosters continues to emerge, the most important way to avoid another winter surge of COVID-19 is to follow all public health recommendations. Most importantly, that includes getting fully vaccinated if you haven’t already, and encouraging others around you to do the same. If you’re currently eligible for a booster shot, they are available at 80,000 locations across the nation, and can help you stay healthy and well for the coming holiday season.
For others eager to do everything possible to protect themselves, their families, and their communities against this terrible virus—but who are not yet eligible for a booster—sit tight for now. The data on booster shots are still coming in for folks like me who were immunized with the Moderna or Johnson & Johnson vaccines. It’s likely that the FDA and CDC will widen their recommendations in the coming weeks.
In the meantime, the Delta variant is still out there and circulating. That makes it critical to maintain vigilance. Wear a mask in indoor spaces, keep a physical distance from others, and remember to wash your hands frequently. We are all really tired of COVID-19, but patience is still required as we learn more about how best to stay ahead of this virus.
 CDC statement on ACIP booster recommendations. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention news release. September 24, 2021
 FDA authorizes booster dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for certain populations. Food and Drug Administration news release. September 22, 2021
 Protection of BNT162b2 vaccine booster against Covid-19 in Israel. Bar-On YM, Goldberg Y, Mandel M, Bodenheimer O, Freedman L, Kalkstein N, Mizrahi B, Alroy-Preis S, Ash N, Milo R, Huppert A. N Engl J Med. 2021 Sep 15.