The results of a retrospective cohort study from the TriNetX US collaborative networks are published in eClinicalMedicine


The long-term cardiovascular outcomes in COVID-19 survivors remain largely unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term cardiovascular outcomes in COVID-19 survivors.


This study used the data from the US Collaborative Network in TriNetX. From a cohort of more than 42 million records between 1 January 2019 and 31 March 2022, a total of 4,131,717 participants who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing were recruited. Study population then divided into two groups based on COVID-19 test results. To avoid reverse causality, the follow-up initiated 30 days after the test, and continued until 12 months. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% Confidence intervals (CIs) of the incidental cardiovascular outcomes were calculated between propensity score–matched patients with versus without SARS-CoV-2 infection. Subgroup analyses on sex, and age group were also conducted. Sensitivity analyses were performed using different network, or stratified by hospitalization to explore the difference of geography and severity of COVID-19 infection.


The COVID-19 survivors were associated with increased risks of cerebrovascular diseases, such as stroke (HR [95% CI] = 1.618 [1.545-1.694]), arrhythmia related disorders, such as atrial fibrillation (HR [95% CI] = 2.407 [2.296-2.523]), inflammatory heart disease, such as myocarditis (HR [95% CI] =4.406 [2.890-6.716]), ischemic heart disease(IHD), like ischemic cardiomyopathy (HR [95% CI] = 2.811 [2.477-3.190]), other cardiac disorders, such as heart failure (HR [95% CI] =2.296 [2.200-2.396]) and thromboembolic disorders (e.g. pulmonary embolism: HR [95% CI] =2.648 [2.443-2.870]). The risks of two composite endpoints, major adverse cardiovascular event (HR [95% CI] = 1.871 [1.816–1.927]) and any cardiovascular outcome (HR [95% CI] = 1.552 [1.526–1.578]), were also higher in the COVID-19 survivors than in the controls. Moreover, the survival probability of the COVID-19 survivors dramatically decreased in all the cardiovascular outcomes. The risks of cardiovascular outcomes were evident in both male and female COVID-19 survivors. Furthermore, the risk of mortality was higher in the elderly COVID-19 survivors (age ≥ 65 years) than in the young ones. Sensitivity analyses presented roughly similar results globally. Furthermore, the impact of COVID-19 on cardio-related outcomes appeared to be more pronounced in inpatients than in outpatients.


The 12-month risk of incidental cardiovascular diseases is substantially higher in the COVID-19 survivors than the non-COVID-19 controls. Clinicians and patients with a history of COVID-19 should pay attention to their cardiovascular health in long term.

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